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C stands for cytosine, a DNA nucleotide that which is one member of the base pair in DNA cosisting of guanine and cytosine. This base pair is conventionally abbreviated G-C (or GC).
The other base pair in DNA is adenine and thymine which is conventionally abbreviated A-T (or AT).
Each base pair forms a "rung of the DNA ladder." A DNA nucleotide is made of a molecule of sugar, a molecule of phosphoric acid, and a molecule called a base. The bases are the "letters" that spell out the genetic code. In DNA, the code letters are A, T, G, and C, which stand for the chemicals adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, respectively. In base pairing, adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.
C1 is the first cervical (neck) vertebra which is called the atlas. It supports the head.
The atlas bone is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its heavens on his shoulders. (Because the god Atlas often adorned maps, a compilation of maps came to be known as an atlas).
C1 through C7 are the symbols for the cervical (neck) vertebrae, the upper 7 vertebrae in the spinal column (the vertebral column).
C1 is called the atlas. It supports the head and is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its heavens on his shoulders. (Because the god Atlas often adorned maps, a compilation of maps came to be known as an atlas).
C2 is called the axis because the atlas rotates about the odontoid process of C2. The joint between the atlas and axis is a pivot that allows the head to turn.
C7 is sometimes called the prominent vertebra because of the length of its spinous process (the projection off the back of the vertebral body).
C2 is the symbol for the second cervical vertebra, which is also called the axis. It is so-named because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra. The joint between the axis and atlas is a pivot type of joint. It allows the head turn.
The Latin word "axis" means axle or pole. The axis bone serves as the axle about which the atlas (and the head) turn.
The third cervical vertebra.
The fourth cervical vertebra.
The fifth cervical vertebra.
The sixth cervical vertebra
C7 is the symbol for the 7th cervical (neck) vertebral bone (C7) which is sometimes called the prominent vertebra due to the length of its spinous process (the projection off the back of the vertebral body).
The spinous process of the top thoracic vertebra (T1) just below C7 is sometimes even more prominent than that of the "prominent vertebra".
A cancer marker, CA 125 is a protein normally made by certain cells in the body including those of the uterine tubes, uterus, cervix, and the lining of the chest and abdominal cavities (the peritoneum and pleura). CA 125 stands for cancer antigen 125.
CA 125 is measured in a blood sample or fluid from the chest or abdominal cavity. All tests in current use are based upon the use of an antibody directed against CA 125(monoclonal antibody technique).
The normal value for CA 125 is less than 35 kU /ml (in most labs). Without additional information, it is impossible to interpret a high CA 125 since it is increased in so many conditions.
In someone being evaluated for a pelvic mass, a CA 125 level greater than 65 is associated with malignancy is approximately 90% of cases. Without a demonstrable pelvic mass, the association is much weaker.
Increases in CA 125 can also occur with malignancies of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes, endometrium (lining of the uterus), lung, breast, and gastrointestinal tract.
With a known malignancy (such as an ovarian carcinoma) the CA 125 level may be monitored periodically. A decreasing level indicates effective therapy while an increasing level indicates tumor recurrence. Because of test variation, small changes are usually not considered significant. A doubling or halving of the previous value would be important.
Benign conditions that can raise CA 125 include infections of the lining of the abdomen and chest (peritonitis and pleuritis), menstruation, pregnancy, endometriosis, and liver disease. Benign tumors of the ovaries can also cause an abnormal test result.