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U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)
The world's largest medical library, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The NLM has as its mission to collect, organize, and make available biomedical science information to investigators, educators, and practitioners and carry out programs designed to strengthen medical library services in the United States. Its electronic data bases, including MEDLINE, are used extensively throughout the world.
The NLM is situated on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The Library collects materials in all areas of biomedicine and health care, as well as works on biomedical aspects of technology, the humanities, and the physical, life, and social sciences. The NLM collections stand at 5.3 million items--books, journals, technical reports, manuscripts, microfilms, photographs and images. Housed within the Library are medical history collections of old and rare medical texts, manuscripts, and incunabula. NLM is an invaluable resource for all U.S. health science libraries and for medicine
Abbreviation for urinalysis, a test that determines the content of the urine. Because urine removes toxins and excess liquids from the body, it can contain important clues. Urinalysis can be used to detect some types of disease, particularly in the case of metabolic disorders and kidney disease. It can also be used to uncover evidence of drug abuse. Accurate urinalysis usually requires a “clean catch” of urine. If you are giving a urine sample, drink plenty of fluids in advance, and wait until one or two seconds into the flow of urine before urinating into the receptacle. For some tests it is important to get the first urine of the day, which will contain the highest concentration of toxins and other clues.
UAL stands for ultrasonic-assisted liposuction.
Liposuction involves the surgical suctioning of fat deposits from specific parts of the body, the most common being the abdomen (the "tummy"), buttocks ("behind"), hips, thighs and knees, chin, upper arms, back, and calves. Liposuction breaks up and "sucks" fat out of the body. This is done through a cannula (a hollow instrument) inserted subdermally (under the skin). A strong vacuum is applied to the cannula.
In ultrasonic-assisted liposuction (UAL), the cannula is energized with ultrasonic energy, causing the fat to melt away on contact, an advantage in areas of scar tissue such as the male breast, back, and in areas of prior liposuction. The disadvantages of UAL include the need for longer incisions in the skin, potential for skin or internal burns, greater cost, and longer time.
No matter how liposuction is done, it is considered completely cosmetic in nature. It is, in fact, now the most common cosmetic operation in the U. S. with over 400,000 such surgical procedures done annually
Urea breath test.
A liver enzyme essential to the disposal of bilirubin (the chemical that results from the normal breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells).
An abnormality of this enzyme (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) results in a condition called Gilbert's disease in which there are mild elevations of bilirubin pigment in the blood. The elevated bilirubin pigment can sometimes cause mild yellowing (jaundice) of the eyes. People with Gilbert's disease are otherwise entirely normal with no other signs or symptoms and their liver enzymes in blood serum are also entirely normal.
There is no need for treatment, and the prognosis (outlook) is excellent.
The gene for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase has been mapped a non-sex chromosome (chromosome 2). A single dose of the Gilbert version of the gene is enough to produce Gilbert's disease.(The condition is said therefore to be an autosomal dominant trait). If someone has Gilbert's disease, the chance of their transmitting the Gilbert gene to each of their children is one-half (50%) and each child who gets the gene gets Gilbert's disease.
Gilbert's disease is a frequent finding in people in the U.S. and Europe. The condition is usually detected serendipitously (purely by accident) in the course of routine blood screening. Gilbert's disease is thus an accidentally-encountered enzyme abnormality of no health consequence.
A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucus membrane. Ulcers can have various causes, depending on their location. Ulcers on the skin are commonly due to irritation, as in the case of bedsores, and may become inflamed and/or infected as they grow. Ulcers in the GI tract were once attributed to stress, but most are now believed to be due to infection with the bacteria H. pyloridus. They are often made worse by stress, smoking, and other factors, however.
An ulcer (a hole in the lining) of the duodenum (the first portion of the small intestine). Ulcer formation is related to H. pyloridus bacteria in the stomach, anti-inflammatory medications, and smoking cigarettes. Ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. Diagnosis is made with barium x-ray or endoscopy. Complications of ulcers include bleeding and perforation. Treatment involves antibiotics to eradicate H. pyloridus, eliminating risk factors, and preventing complications
A hole in the lining of the esophagus (tube-like organ leading from the throat to the stomach) corroded by the acidic digestive juices secreted by the stomach cells. Ulcer formation is related to H. pyloridus bacteria in the stomach, anti-inflammatory medications, and smoking cigarettes. Ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. Diagnosis is made with barium x-ray or endoscopy. Complications of ulcers include bleeding and perforation. Treatment involves antibiotics to eradicate H. pyloridus, eliminating risk factors, and preventing complications.
A hole in the lining of the stomach corroded by the acidic digestive juices which are secreted by the stomach cells. Ulcer formation is related to H. pyloridus bacteria in the stomach, anti-inflammatory medications, and smoking cigarettes. Ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. Diagnosis is made with barium x-ray or endoscopy. Complications of ulcers include bleeding, perforation, and blockage of the stomach (gastric obstruction).
A peptic ulcer is a hole in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, an ulcer of the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer, and a peptic ulcer of the esophagus is an esophageal ulcer. A peptic ulcer occurs when the lining of these organs is corroded by the acidic digestive juices which are secreted by the stomach cells. Peptic ulcer disease is common, affecting millions of Americans yearly. The medical cost of treating peptic ulcer and its complications runs in the billions of dollars annually in the U.S. Recent medical advances have increased our understanding of ulcer formation. Improved and expanded treatment options are now available.