Paediatrics => Measles
Measles, also rubeola, acute, highly contagious, fever-producing disease caused by a filterable virus, different from the virus that causes the less serious disease German measles, or rubella. Measles is characterized by small red dots appearing on the surface of the skin, irritation of the eyes (especially on exposure to light), coughing, and a runny nose. About 12 days after first exposure, the fever, sneezing, and runny nose appear. Coughing and swelling of the neck glands often follow. Four days later, red spots appear on the face or neck and then on the trunk and limbs. In 2 or 3 days the rash subsides and the fever falls; some peeling of the involved skin areas may take place. Infection of the middle ear may also occur.
No specific treatment for measles exists. Patients are kept isolated from other susceptible individuals, usually resting in bed, and are treated with aspirin, cough syrup, and skin lotions to lessen fever, coughing, and itching. The disease usually confers immunity after one attack, and an immune pregnant woman passes the antibody in the globulin fraction of the blood serum, through the placenta, to her fetus.